When to Use the Personal a
Consider the following sentences:
visitó la montaña.
Él visitó a Isabella.
How should they
be translated? The first one is easy, "He visited the mountain." The second
one is a bit more difficult. It looks like, "He visited Isabel," but what
is the "a" there for? The reason is a small but important rule in Spanish
known as the personal a rule.
While it may not appear to be
necessary, the second sentence needs to have an a before Isabel.
Why? Because two conditions are true:
- One, Isabel is a person. OK, that's easy enough.
- Two, Isabel is a direct object. OK, what's a direct object?
*Note: technically speaking we should ask "whom?"
You'll learn more about objects later, but what you need to know now is
that a direct object answers "who?" or "what?" receives the
action of the verb in the sentence. To figure that out, simply read the sentence,
stop after the verb, and ask yourself "who?" or "what?" He
who*? He visited Isabel. "Isabel" answers the question, "who?"
Note: Do not confuse the personal a with the preposition a: Ella gritó a Pablo. (She screamed at Pablo.)
So we need to include a personal a
in front of a direct object if that direct object is a person. The a does not get translated into English.
The formula looks something like this:
subject + verb + a + direct object (person)
Compare these examples:
Andrés conoce bien a mi prima.
Andrés knows my cousin well.
Hernando vio a Ronaldo.
Hernando saw Ronaldo.
Yo quiero a mi novia.
I love my girlfriend.
Andrés conoce bien la ciudad.
Andrés knows the city well.
Hernando vio la película.
Hernando saw the movie.
Yo quiero pizza.
I love pizza.
Let's practice a little, shall we?
If we translated these sentences, which ones would need a personal a
and where would it go?
She drives a
They know my brothers.
We practice with the twins.
I love my mother
Note: A personal a followed by an el will combine to form al:
Yo conozco al maestro.
the first sentence, "car" is a direct object, but it is not a person,
therefore no personal a
is necessary. In the second sentence, "brothers"
is the direct object and they are people so we should use a personal a. In the third sentence, "twins" are people, but they are
not a direct object because they don't answer "who?" or "what?"
("Twins" is actually part of a prepositional phrase that starts with
the preposition "with.") In the last sentence, "mother" is a direct object and a person. In Spanish, these sentences should look like:
conduce un coche.
conocen a mis hermanos.
con los gemelos.
a mi madre.
Note: If the answer to a question would require a personal a, the question should have one too.
When pronouns like alguno and ninguno refer to people, the personal a
is used. Ditto for alguien,
nadie, and quién. Some examples:
oigo a nadie.
I don't hear anyone.
¿A quién estás llamando?
Whom are you calling?
veo a ninguno.
Teachers? I don't see any.
Exceptions to the Personal a Rule
Tener, Ser, and Haber
in sentences with a direct object who is a person, we typically do not use a
personal a after the verbs tener, ser, or haber:
Yo tengo dos hermanos.
I have two brothers.
Mi mejor amigo es mi primo.
My best friend is my cousin.
Hay muchas personas allí.
There are many people there.
at times, when we use tener in a sense of "to hold" or "to have
in a specific place" we will use the personal a:
fin, ella tenía a su nieto en los brazos.
Finally, she had her grandson in her arms.
Él tiene a su hijo en la
He has his son in bed.
Sometimes things (especially countries) are treated as if they
were people to show an emotional connection and therefore a personal a
would be used:
extraña mucho a Nicaragua.
Susana misses Nicaragua a lot.
though they are not people, a personal a
can be used with
pets, especially if that pet is a beloved member of the family:
amamos a nuestro perro.
We love our dog.
When the direct object refers to indefinite, non-specific, or anonymous people (people with whom we don't have an emotional connection), we do not need to use a personal a. In this situation the direct object has become depersonified; it's being treated more like an object than a person. This tends to happen with verbs like buscar, necesitar, and encontrar:
Armando está buscando tres obreros.
Armando is looking for three workers.
They needed volunteers.